For more than two decades, Ken White worked at a credit card processor. It was a good job, but it fell victim to the Great Recession.
Today, at 56, White does similar work managing technology projects for a regional bank, and yet, everything feels different. He is a contractor for a technology services firm that assigns him to the bank. He is paid less, and the bonuses and stock awards he once earned as a full-fledged employee are long gone.
For all the US economy’s robust job growth, White and many people like him do not feel much like beneficiaries of what is now the longest expansion on record. The kinds of jobs they once enjoyed — permanent positions, with stability, bonuses, pensions, benefits and opportunities to move up — are now rarer.
“It’s not as easy as it was,” White said.
White’s evolution from employee to contractor is emblematic of a trend in the US workplace a full decade after the recession ended: The economy keeps growing and unemployment is at a half-century low, yet many people feel their jobs have been devalued by employers that increasingly assign a higher priority to shareholders and customers.
Economic research, government data and interviews with workers sketch a picture of lagging wages, eroding benefits and demands for employees to do more without more pay.
The loyalty and security that many have said that they once felt from their employers have diminished, and with it some measure of their satisfaction.
Experts point to a sea change in the US job experience that began decades ago, but has grown more visible across a wider spectrum of jobs. They see a confluence of forces squeezing workers — from globalization and workplace automation to a decline of labor unions, fiercer price competition and a growing use of outside firms and contractors.
At the same time, the gulf in pay between a CEO and a median worker has widened. Publicly traded companies are increasingly plowing cash into stock buybacks and shareholder dividends.
“We’ve made decisions and baked into the structure this extreme inequality at this point,” said Barbara Dyer of the Good Companies, Good Jobs Initiative at MIT’s Sloan School of Management, a project to improve management practices. “It’s a function of a lot of choices that we may not have even been conscious of.”
A collaborative analysis of last year’s General Social Survey by the Associated Press-NORC Center for Public Affairs Research and survey staff found a rise in people saying that their workplace has grown more demanding.
About one in three workers said that they now face too much work to do everything well.
About one in five said that they held a job other than their main one.
About three-quarters said that they had to work extra hours beyond their usual schedule at least one day a month.
All those numbers are up from 2006.
Half of working Americans last year said that they believe workers need strong unions, up from 40 percent in 2006.
Among workers younger than 35, 60 percent favor strong unions at a time when union participation has been steadily dwindling.
Many measures of inequality still have not returned to where they were before the recession: The wealthiest Americans now hold a greater share of the nation’s wealth and middle-income households have less home equity. Median household income, adjusted for inflation, has barely budged in two decades.